The situation in Palestine was reaching an impasse just as World War II broke out. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Turhan, Filiz. At the same time, Iran, newly consolidated under the Qajar dynasty (r. 1796–1925), was proving vulnerable to Russian expansion. [8], Foreigners tried for civil offenses attended mixed Egyptian-foreigner courts; these courts used the French language as the medium of proceedings. In this maritime scheme of British imperialism, the Persian Gulf was also vitally important. However, after the end of World War One, British colonial authorities attempted to legitimize their less radical opponents with entrance into the League of Nations including the peace treaty of Versailles. Instead, Britain and Russia vied to exert their influence in Iran politically, by supplying military and foreign policy advisors, and economically, by securing trade privileges and concessions pertaining to commodities and services. Simultaneously, French forces landed in Alexandria and the northern end of the canal.

When the war ended in 1918, Britain faced the impossible task of implementing and reconciling the three, mutually contradictory agendas of the Husayn-McMahon Correspondence, the Sykes-Picot Agreement, and the Balfour Declaration. New York: St. Martin's, 1999. ." London, England

However, Turkish-speaking nationalists led by an Ottoman war veteran named Mustafa Kemal (later called Atatürk, or "Father of the Turks") rallied to prevent the implementation of this treaty and to set up a counter-government in the central Anatolian village of Ankara. The ultimate goal behind the first two objectives was to secure and protect sea and land routes to India, which was becoming increasingly vital both to Britain's economy and to its imperial psyche. In deference to the growing nationalism and at the suggestion of the High Commissioner, Lord Allenby, the UK unilaterally declared Egyptian independence on 28 February 1922, abolishing the protectorate and establishing an independent Kingdom of Egypt. ", This page was last edited on 21 October 2020, at 08:46. Husayn did not retain power for long, however, as in 1924 the Wahhabist forces of 'Abd al'Aziz Ibn Saqud overran the region and seized control, forcing him to flee into exile. When Britain tried to prevent Egyptian nationalist leaders from airing their views at the Paris Peace Conference, a popular nationalist revolt broke out. This Arab state would include the Fertile Crescent (including the general region that today includes Syria, Lebanon, Israel and the Palestinian territories, Jordan, and Iraq) and the Arabian Peninsula. Topics will include: Concepts and Definitions; British Imperial Activity pre-1914; the Invasion and Occupation of Egypt, 1882; The First World War and the Near East, 1914-1918; The Palestine Problem Emerges, 1915-1917; A Peace to End All Peace?

The British and French Mandates in Comparative Perspectives.

This was exploited in turn by the German Empire which began re-organizing, funding, and expanding anti-British revolutionary nationalist movements. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. The San Remo Conference separated the Arab provinces from the Ottoman Empire and allocated spheres of influence to France and Britain, drawing the outlines for the country borders that we see today on the Middle East map.

They identified a possible ally in Husayn ibn Ali, also known as Sharif Husayn of Mecca., "British Colonialism, Middle East

Throughout the 19th century, the ruling dynasty of Egypt had spent vast sums of money on the infrastructural development of Egypt. British Documents on Foreign Affairs: Reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print, Part 3: From 1940 through 1945, Series B: Near and Middle East. [5] The anticolonial riots and British suppression of them led to the death of some 800 people.

Issawi, Charles.

(dhimmis). 1, edited by John L. Esposito, 257-260. [2], In 1906 the Denshawai Incident provoked questioning of British rule in Egypt.

Britain retained control of the Canal Zone, Sudan and Egypt's external protection; protection of foreigners and separate courts for foreigners; the police forces, the army, the railways and the communications. The Treaty of Sèvres delivered the final blow to the Ottoman Empire. However, the Egyptian government had borrowed heavily from foreign countries to assist Egypt's technological development. By the Treaty of Jidda in 1927, Britain agreed to recognize the family of Ibn Saqud as rulers over most of the Arabian peninsula (i.e., Britain recognized the kingdom of Saudi Arabia) in return for extracting a promise from the Saudis to respect the integrity of Transjordan and of Hashimite rule in that vicinity. Secretary, recommending that the protectorate should be replaced by a treaty of alliance. The 1952 coup overthrew the Egyptian monarchy and established the modern Republic of Egypt. When the loans came due in 1875, the Ottoman and Egyptian governments found themselves unable to pay. Hoping to raise the needed funds, the Egyptian government sold its 44 percent stake in the Suez Canal Company to the British government, to no avail. In the period from 1798 to 1882, Britain pursued three major objectives in the Middle East: protecting access to trade routes in the eastern Mediterranean, maintaining stability in Iran and the Persian Gulf, and guaranteeing the integrity of the Ottoman Empire. The situation was normalised in the Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936, which granted Britain the right to station troops in Egypt for the defence of the Suez Canal, its link with the Indian Empire. Britain went to war against Egypt over the Suez Canal in late 1956, but with insufficient international support was forced to back down. King Fuad died in 1936 and Farouk inherited the throne at the age of sixteen. Cleveland, William L. A History of the Modern Middle East. The most controversial history of post-World War I British imperialism in the region pertains to Palestine. Deaths. 10 vols.

It retained this role as late as World War I, notwithstanding the growing prominence of Germany and Italy in the region's economy during the late nineteenth century.

Both joined together and maneuvered to meet the Egyptian army.

However, the Dominion delegates at the 1921 Imperial Conference had stressed the importance of maintaining control over the Suez Canal Zone and Curzon could not persuade his Cabinet colleagues to agree to any terms that Adli Pasha was prepared to accept. Indicative web based resources e.g. London: Longman, 2002.

In the aftermath of World War One, the large British Imperial Army in Egypt which was the centre of operations against the Ottoman Empire was quickly reduced with demobilization and restructuring of garrisons. During the period of British colonization French was actually the lingua franca that was used among foreigners and between foreigners and Egyptians;[6] the mixed French-Egyptian civil courts operated in French, and government notices from the royal family, taxi stand information, timetables of trains, and other legal documents were issued in French.

[2] During the first world war, Middle Eastern Canadians of Turkish origin were placed in “enemy alien" internment camps. [3], During British occupation and later control, Egypt developed into a regional commercial and trading destination.

20 vols. Porter, Andrew. Britain used both occasions to extract advantages for itself.

An Economic History of the Middle East and North Africa.