Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Mayo Clinic School of Continuous Professional Development, Mayo Clinic School of Graduate Medical Education, Book: Mayo Clinic Family Health Book, 5th Edition, Newsletter: Mayo Clinic Health Letter — Digital Edition. The cause of hypernatremia is usually evident from the history and physical … Hyponatremia occurs when the sodium in your blood falls below 135 mEq/L. Most of the sodium in the body is in the blood and lymph fluid. National Kidney Foundation. Hypernatremia is the medical term used to describe having too much sodium in the blood. The amount of sodium (salt) in your blood is higher than normal. © 2004-2020 Healthline Media UK Ltd, Brighton, UK, a Red Ventures Company. Hyponatremia occurs when the concentration of sodium in your blood is abnormally low. The kidneys and adrenal glands are responsible for regulating sodium levels. "Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. The result is too little body water for the amount of total body sodium. We’ll discuss the symptoms of severe dehydration and when you should seek medical help. It’s also a necessary part of the body’s lymph fluids and cells. Healthline Media does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Rapidly developing hypernatremia will be treated more aggressively than hypernatremia that develops more slowly. Nausea and vomiting … Coma2 An adult with hypernatremia might have somewhat different types of symptoms, like: 1. With severe elevations of sodium, seizures and coma may occur. Metabolic alkalosis is a type of alkalosis that occurs when your blood becomes overly alkaline. Urine tests can also be used to identify high levels of sodium along with urine concentration. Hyponatremia Risk Factors. But if that doesn’t work, here are six other hacks to try. This content does not have an English version. Treatment depends on the cause. In: Conn's Current Therapy 2017. Depending on the cause of hyponatremia, you may simply need to cut back on how much you drink. Increased thirst 2. With severe elevations of sodium, seizures and coma may occur. People usually recover with minimal intervention. Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only. During pregnancy, it’s important to stay hydrated. In acute hyponatremia, sodium levels drop rapidly — resulting in potentially dangerous effects, such as rapid brain swelling, which can result in a coma and death. The speed of onset will help your doctor determine a treatment plan. In other words, hyponatremia develops when too little sodium is in the blood. Muscle weakness 3. Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. In: Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. Nippoldt TB (expert opinion). Want to change up your hydration routine after a sweat session? Severe symptoms are rare and usually found only with rapid and large rises of sodium in the blood plasma. The opposite of hypernatremia is hyponatremia. The type of treatment will vary depending on the underlying cause. Treatment usually consists of increasing fluid intake and managing the underlying condition responsible for hypernatremia. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. But what is a dehydration headache, when…, Many automatic processes in the body run on small electric currents, and electrolytes provide this charge. Accessed April 6, 2018. The main cause of hypernatremia usually involves dehydration due to an impaired thirst mechanism or limited access to water, according to the Merck Manual. Here are 7 evidence-based health benefits of drinking water. Hypernatremia is generally defined as a serum sodium level of more than 145 mmol/L. Changes in water loss or water intake also change the concentration of sodium in the blood. This page explains exactly how much water you should drink in a day. If a person has unexplained fatigue, irritability, or other mood changes, they should talk to their doctor, as these may be symptoms of hypernatremia. All rights reserved. It helps maintain normal blood pressure, supports the work of your nerves and muscles, and regulates your body's fluid balance. One of the most dangerous complications is a brain hemorrhage, which can occur due to veins rupturing in the brain. That’s because as you grow older, you’re more likely to have a decreased sense of thirst. It helps control blood pressure and fluid balance. An excess of sodium in the blood can sometimes become a problem if it goes untreated. The body will respond by either increasing thirst (to boost water intake) or passing a greater amount of sodium in the urine (to excrete more sodium). Untreated hypernatremia has a mortality rate of 15–20%. See our safe care and visitor guidelines, plus trusted coronavirus information. Other treatment options for hypernatremia may include simply increasing fluid intake. Most of the body’s sodium is found in the blood. Here's what you need to know about dehydration headaches, including symptoms, remedies, and tips for prevention. Several conditions can cause hypernatremia or increase its … A doctor can often make a diagnosis by asking about the person’s medical history and carrying out a physical examination. When a doctor diagnoses and treats hypernatremia early, the outlook for people with this condition is generally good. Hyponatremia occurs when the concentration of sodium in your blood is abnormally low. Often, a person can self-treat their condition at home by increasing their fluid intake. That’s used to intravenously supply fluid to your blood. In rare cases, consuming too much sodium can cause hypernatremia to occur. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. Both tests can show an increased presence of sodium in the blood, which can indicate hypernatremia. The success of treatment often relies on controlling the underlying condition. Hypernatremia may not cause any symptoms, meaning that a person may not be aware that they have it. Although hypernatremia is often mild and does not usually require treatment, moderate-to-severe cases may require attention. Though it’s normal for electrolyte levels to…. 7 Science-Based Health Benefits of Drinking Enough Water, Can’t Believe It’s Not Water — 5 Hydrating, Post-Workout Drinks, Daniel Bubnis, M.S., NASM-CPT, NASE Level II-CSS, Symptoms of Severe Dehydration During Pregnancy, 16 Simple Ways to Relieve Stress and Anxiety, How to Fall Asleep in 10, 60, or 120 Seconds. Hypernatremia can often be treated outside the hospital. Other symptoms include fatigue and confusion. The primary causes of hypernatremia are too much sodium or insufficient liquid in the blood. Severe symptoms typically only occur when levels are above 160 mmol/L. Hypernatremia, also spelled hypernatraemia, is a high concentration of sodium in the blood. Insomnia 5. How does having too much or too little affect our health, and how much should we…. Often, a person will not realize that they have the condition until their doctor examines them or runs a blood or urine test. High-pitched cry 6. Hypernatremia occurs when sodium levels in the blood are too high. 7th ed. What are the symptoms of low sodium levels? 2018;3:24. Changes in fluid can be caused by: In healthy people, thirst and urine concentration are triggered by receptors in the brain that recognize the need for fluid or sodium correction. Kengne FG, et al. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Sodium is an electrolyte, and it helps regulate the amount of water that's in and around your cells. It means that the level of sodium in a person’s blood is too high. Premenopausal women appear to be at the greatest risk of hyponatremia-related brain damage. Hyponatremia signs and symptoms may include: Seek emergency care for anyone who develops severe signs and symptoms of hyponatremia, such as nausea and vomiting, confusion, seizures, or lost consciousness. FREE book offer – Mayo Clinic Health Letter. But when dehydration occurs in the…, Dehydration headaches can cause many symptoms, including low blood pressure, dizziness, dark urine, and pain. Hyponatremia. Depending on the extent and duration of these signs and symptoms, your doctor may recommend seeking immediate medical care. In more severe cases, a person may need IV fluids to help restore proper sodium levels. This swelling can cause many health problems, from mild to life-threatening. When this happens, your body's water levels rise, and your cells begin to swell. This condition occurs when a person’s serum sodium level is less than 135 mEq/l.